Apprendre la photo numérique
apprendre la photo

Apprendre la photo numérique

Apprendre la photo numérique revient à apprendre la photo. La logique de l’appareil photo, qu’il soit argentique, compact, reflex, hybride ou bridge est toujours la même. Le passage de la photo argentique à la photo numérique n’a rien changé, si ce n’est un résultat immédiat et un coût moindre. J’ajouterai que le numérique offre une assurance de tout les instants, ce qui n’est pas forcément une bonne chose. Mais il faut comprendre les bases pour ensuite progresser. Je vais expliquer dans cet article l’essentiel de la photo.

Quelle sont les bases pour apprendre la photo numérique?

Sur votre boitier, vous avez différents modes. Des modes pensé dans des bureaux d’études lors de la conception de l’appareil et le mode manuel, mode dans lequel le photographe va prendre toutes les décisions. Ces différents modes vont au final toujours agir sur une notion essentielle de la photo : la profondeur de champ. Il est très important pour apprendre la photo numérique de comprendre cette histoire de profondeur de champ. C’est en réalité la partie qui va être nette dans votre image. C’est un choix à faire.

Concernent les modes de l’appareil photo, pour mémoire, dans des temps reculés (avant les années 2000 et l’essor du numérique, les appareils photos avait au grand maximum 3 modes : le mode manuel, la pause B et un mode automatique.

Pour faire simple, car, je vais vous proposer de découvrir au court de différents articles, de manières séparée tout ce qui va suivre, nous avons besoin de 3 paramètres pour réaliser une photo. Il nous faut :

  • Une vitesse d’exposition. Elle s’exprime en seconde. Elle se présente très souvent sous forme de fraction. Par exemple : 1/30, correspond à un trentième de seconde. 1/500 est donc égal à 1 seconde divisée par 500. Parfois vous pourrez lire sur votre appareil photo 25’’. Lorsque vous avez des guillemets, il s’agit de seconde. Donc, 25’’ équivaut à 25 secondes.
  • Une ouverture. Celle-ci s’obtient grâce au diaphragme. La valeur est F, pour  »nombre de F ». C’est un nombre sans unité. On croit souvent que le diaphragme sert à faire rentrer plus ou moins de lumière. Je considère que c’est une énorme erreur de le penser. Le diaphragme sert maitriser la profondeur de champ.
  • Une sensibilité. Elle s’exprime en ISO. Le nom provient de : Organisation Internationale de Normalisation (International Organization for Standardization). Elle correspond à la quantité de lumière qu’est capable de recevoir un capteur ou une pellicule sur une surface donnée. C’est peut-être conceptuel, mais imaginez : vous avez un plat au four. Vous savez que vos mains sont sensibles à la chaleur. Si vous le touchez à main nue, vous vous brûlez instantanément. Si vous mettez une manique, vous mains seront alors moins sensibles, vous ne vous brulerez pas, en tout cas pas tout de suite. Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus sur la sensibilité, je vous invite à lire l’article très intéressant à ce sujet sur wikipédia.

Il n’y a besoin de rien d’autre. J’entends souvent dire que l’ouverture est utilisée pour faire passer plus ou moins de lumière.  Mais réfléchissons :

  • La vitesse va nous faire passer de la lumière pendant un certain temps.
  • La sensibilité va augmenter ou diminuer cette quantité de lumière reçue.
  • L’ouverture, va faire passer plus ou moins de lumière.

Il est important de comprendre que ces paramètres on tous le même le même but : exposer sa photo. Gérer l’exposition de la photo. C’est important de comprendre, lorsque l’on veut apprendre la photo numérique le comportement de ces 3 paramètres réunis. Il vont former ce que l’on appelle le triangle d’exposition. Ce triangle porte également un nom étrange : le couple Vitesse / Ouverture (la sensibilité en fait partie, mais n’intervient pas dans le résultat final de l’image, puisque historiquement nous ne changions pas de pellicules en court de route).

Apprendre la photo numérique, c’est aussi apprendre à cadrer ses images

La composition a ses règles et ses exceptions. Vous devez apprendre à cadrer vos images. Apprendre à photographier avec un appareil photo numérique à cet avantage de ne pas vous limiter en nombre d’essais. Je constate régulièrement qu’il ne sert à rien de prendre des milliards de photos. Il faut que vous le « sentiez » dans le viseur, que votre cadrage marche. Le fait de sentir que celui-ci fonctionne passe par l’expérience, par l’apprentissage, par des tentatives, par une culture visuelle. Ca ne vient pas tout seul, cela demande du travail. Beaucoup de travail.

Apprendre la photo numérique, c’est aussi apprendre à regarder d’un point de vue de photographe.

Une photo essaie de représenter une réalité. Mais le fait de cadrer va « trahir » cette réalité. Vous allez jouer avec le cadre et le hors cadre. C’est ainsi que vous allez photographier votre réalité. C’est important de comprendre cela dans votre apprentissage de la photographie. Comprendre votre réalité et savoir la traduire en image.

Comment faites vous pour apprendre la photo? Quels sont les points qui vous bloque? Est-ce difficile pour vous de comprendre la photo? Savez-vous comment apprendre la photo? Exprimez vos difficultés pour apprendre la photo dans les commentaires.

On vient sur cette page pour : apprendre la photographie, apprendre a faire des photos, appareil photo flou, apprendre la photo numerique, faire du portrait photo, comment prendre des photos, astuce photos, detourage image, comment prendre des photo, astuces photo, comment bien prendre une photo, apprendre a photographier, comment faire un bon portrait, photo, exercice, faire photo, faire portrait photo, prendre des photos professionnel, portraits photos, bien prendre des photos, comment faire des portraits, comment faire des photos, ou prendre des photos, regarder photos, exercice de photographie, faire photo portrait, je veux faire une photo, ou faire des photos, photo avec bridge, faire des photos avec un reflex, photo a faire, prendre des photos avec un reflex, prenez des photos, prendre un portrait, faire de la photo de mode, tout pour la photo, comment mettre du flou sur une photo,

blog apprendre la photo,fond pour faire des photos, comment prendre une photo professionnel. C’est drôle, non?

 

81 CommentsLeave a comment

  • Article très instructif qui montre qu’il est facile de prendre des photos (du matériel, des connaissances techniques et théoriques…) mais que faire une bonne photo, c’est une autre histoire…

    • C’est exactement ça. Commençons par le choix du sujet. Alain, je sais que es très bon et tu sais si ton image va être porteuse au moment où tu la prend.

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